Bladder cancer is the cancer that forms in tissues of the bladder (the organ that stores urine). Most bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas (cancer that begins in cells that normally make up the inner lining of the bladder). The most common symptom of bladder cancer is bleeding in the urine (hematuria).
Breast cancer is the cancer that forms in tissues of the breast. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which begins in the lining of the milk ducts (thin tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the nipple). A sign is something that can be observed and recognized by a doctor or healthcare professional (for example, a rash).
Colon cancer is cancer that forms in the tissues of the colon (the longest part of the large intestine). Colorectal cancer may not cause any signs or symptoms in its early stages because there is lots of room in the abdomen where a tumour can grow. Symptoms often appear once the tumour blocks (obstructs) or causes ulcerations (sores) in the colon or rectum.
Endometrial cancer is cancer that forms in the tissue lining the uterus (the small, hollow, pear-shaped organ in a woman’s pelvis in which a fetus develops). Late signs and symptoms occur as the cancer grows larger or spreads to other parts of the body, including other organs.
Kidney cancer is cancer that forms in tissues of the kidneys. Kidney cancer may not cause any signs or symptoms in its early stages because the kidneys have few nerves, so tumours can grow without causing any pain or discomfort. The location of the kidneys deep inside the body means that tumours have space to grow very large before they are found.
Leukemia is a cancer that starts in blood stem cells. There are many different types of leukemia. They are grouped based on the type of blood stem cell they developed from. Lymphocytic leukemias (also known as lymphoblastic leukemias) develop from abnormal lymphoid stem cells. Myelogenous leukemias develop from abnormal myeloid stem cells.
Lung cancer is a malignant tumor that starts in the cells of the lung. Malignant means that it can spread, or metastasize, to other parts of the body. When cancer starts in lung cells, it is called primary lung cancer. The signs and symptoms of lung cancer can also be caused by other health conditions. It is important to have any unusual symptoms checked by a doctor.
Melanoma is a cancer that most often starts in the skin. The skin is the body’s largest organ. It protects your body from injury, infection, heat and ultraviolet light from the sun. The skin helps control your body temperature and gets rid of waste materials through the sweat glands. It also makes vitamin D and stores water and fat. Moles are common.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a cancer that starts in lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are cells of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system works with other parts of your immune system to help your body fight infection and disease. The lymphatic system is made up of a network of lymph vessels, lymph nodes and the lymphatic organs.
Pancreatic cancer starts in the cells of the pancreas. The pancreas is a large gland that lies behind your stomach, deep in the upper part of the abdomen. The pancreas is part of the digestive system. Digestive juices made by the pancreas flow down a tube in the centre of the pancreas called the pancreatic duct. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct, which carries bile from the liver.
Prostate cancer starts in the cells of the prostate. The prostate is part of a man’s reproductive system. Its main function is to make part of the liquid (seminal fluid) that mixes with sperm from the testicles to make semen. Semen is ejaculated during sex. Late Signs and Symptoms occur as the cancer grows larger or spreads to other parts of the body, including other organs.